To begin, we must understand that the most traditional battery balance methods are top battery cell balancing and bottom battery cell balancing. However, with technological advancements, we prefer to use scientific methods to solve such complex problems. Most people now use a device known as a balancer. This device is more accurate and efficient than manual balancing when it comes to LiFePO4 battery balancing. However, if no conditions exist, only manual balancing can be performed.
Top battery cell balancing entails fully charging all of the cells and then connecting them to form a battery pack for balancing, which is suitable for optimizing charging. Bottom battery cell balancing entails discharging all of the cells to the bare minimum required for safety and then connecting them to form a battery pack for balancing. If you want to optimize the discharge, bottom balancing is the best balancing method for you. In short, the choice between top balance and bottom balance is primarily determined by how your LiFePO4 battery pack will be used. The key concept is "balance."
Manual balancing is really not that difficult.
To begin, we'll need a multimeter to measure the voltage of each cell. The voltage parameters of all the cells must then be recorded, and the cells must be arranged in order from small to large. Of course, you can also go from big to small as long as you like it!
Then we must select a parallel path to connect all of the cells; why parallel? Because series connections are relatively unsafe for cell balance, the parallel method is preferable.
After the connection is complete, we must wait for a long time, during which the relatively high voltage cells slowly charge the relatively low voltage cells and finally reach a balance.
Also, use a multimeter to check the voltage and capacity of the battery pack to ensure it matches your theoretical calculations. Following completion of these steps, you can select top balance or bottom balance based on your requirements. Don't forget to add an excellent BMS after you've completed the cell balance. BMS has certain effects on maintaining cell balance in addition to detecting the parameters of your battery pack and preventing the LiFePO4 battery pack from overcharging, over-discharging, and over-current problems. Of course, using a balancer is highly recommended; otherwise, balancing batteries will become your daily activity in the future.
Although DIY LiFePO4 battery novices may frequently overlook this step, the balance of the battery has a direct impact on the overall performance and lifespan of the battery pack. Make sure to balance the battery cells for optimal battery pack performance.